We are now re-considering the scientific facts of yesterday.

All historical generations grew up on some level of mineral water. The benefits of lithium were not known until the mid 19th century but were felt so essential that water containing little or not detectable levels of lithium was lithiated.  The search for bacteria and poison free municipal water lead to the establishment of reservoirs filled with rain water under the belief that tap water has no physical or chemical difference from spring or well water.  No thought was given, after decades of farming the same land without replenishment of minerals, that the only and best (dissolved) source of minerals is drinking water.  We have become a nation of people with mineral deficients, with the most extreme sufferers are in prisons, institutions, or under medical care.

Since Lithium was withdrawn from our water and beverage supply in 1949, America has witnessed not just an increase in autism, mood disorders, divorce, dental decay, dementia, diabetes, drug use, and diseases like Huntington’s, Parkinson’s but it has seen a host of new problems Alzheimer’s, ADD, ADHD, OCD, Bipolar.  All these problems, social and physical, have grown increasingly with each new generation as we have gotten less and less lithium, and a host of other minerals.

Scientist Victor Schauberger from Austria, a hundred years ago, told his peers and colleagues that one day in the not so distant future, water would be more expensive than wine or gasoline.  He was written off as crazy.  Many foreign companies listened and have invested heavily in American municipal water supplies and in the US bottled water industry.  (WR3:3,9-14)  Now American think nothing of buyinga 12 ounce bottle of water at public events for $1.00 to $2.50 … that’s about $11-27 per gallon … paying more than for a can of beer, bottle of soda, or equal amount of gasoline. [32]


A.                 Soil, Water, Food, Nuitrition

We can get any necessary lithium from our food and water.

The amount of lithium in a normal diet varies widely.  Some lithium is present in most foods, with the highest levels reported in eggs and milk. U Schafer, “Essentiality and Toxicity of Lithium”, Journal of Trace and Microprobe Techniques, 15(3), 341- 349, 1997 [23]  The article [40] notes that sugarcane, and tobacco contain lithium.

Its a good thing that rat studies show humans don’t crave lithium or one might think people are craving items like sugar and cigarettes! just because they contain lithium

Drinking water can be a substantial source of lithium.  The content in the United States ranges from 0.00001 to 0.170 mg/L with the average of 0.002 mg/L.  (Dufor & Becker, “Public Water Supplies of the 100 Largest Cities in the United States, 1962″, Geological Survey Water Supply Paper, 1812, p 364.; Barr & Clarke, “Regulation of Lithium Levels in Man: Is There Evidence of Biological Essentiality?”, Lithium, 1994, Vol 5 pp 173-180.)

El Paso, Texas has one of the highest concentrations and is most noted as a high lithium, low mental illness site.  One region of northern Chile has 5 mg/L of lithium in its water.  The water has been consumsed continously without adverse effects being reported.  Industrial outflow that has raised drinking water to 6-12 mg/L has not been shown to cause any obvious problems.  Triffleman & Jefferson, “Naturally Occurring Lithium”, Lithium and Cell Physiology, 1990, pp 16-24 [23]

Multi-mineral dietary supplements commonly include compounds of 13 minerals (4:3,25-33); calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, boron, copper, manganese, iodine, molybdenum, chromium, selenium, and vanadium.  We generally get enough or too much Sodium (in processed foods) and enough Phosphorus (in vegetables) in our daily foods.  However, in pill form there is evidence (WR4:3,46-48& WR4:4,23)

Vitamins & Minerals
S Schoenthaler, “Vitamins Against Crime”, Medical Nutrition, 1990,34-37,
Brain function requires adequate nutrition and chronic undernutrition can result in antisocial behavior.  Researchers found vitamin and mineral tests can be a good indicator of violentbehavior. [30]

S Schoenthaler, “Applied Nutrition and Behavior”, Journal of Applied Nutrition, 1991, 43(1), pp 31-39
Nutrient (vitamins and minerals) dense diets in 813 state institutions resulted in significantly improved conduct, specifically less violent behavior.  [30]

“Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior”, MR Werbach, MD
Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, Vol 7, No 1 1995,
www.healthy.net/library/journals/ortho [22]

Deficiency in some minerals and sub-toxic levels of other minerals are believed to cause “aggresion”.   Lithium seems to be used by the body to moderate the aggression.  For example, most paints before 1950 were lead based, yet the effects of lead poisoning did not become recognized as epidemic until the arrival of the first generation after lithium was withdrawn, even though the new “latex” paint was now largely used in interiors.

The aggressive behavioral syndrome is marked by restlessness, irritability, impulsivity and a proneness to violence.
American Psychiatric Association; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1987  [22]

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder.  When attributed to organic factors it would frequently be classified as an Organic Personality Syndrome. [22]

Nutritional factors are neglected for a number of reasons. Physicians learn so little about nutritional medicine during their training that they feel too uninformed to include it in their practices [Does the body actually have full use of the vitamins in vitamin pills?  Does the body actually have full use of the
minerals in mineral supplement pills?  What about changing information like the FDA recommended need for Vitamin A changed to Vitamin A from Beta Carotene only and avoid other sources?] [22]

It is not known how frequently overaggressive behaviors are a manifestation of marginal vitamin (or mineral) nutriture. [22]

Thiamine Deficiency (in) adolescents were impulsive, highly irritable, aggressive and sensitive to criticism. Thiamine suppplementation improved behavior. (Lonsdale & Shamberger – 1980) [22]

Iron is the most common nutritional deficiency in industrialized societies [ie people who get water from reservoirs], 10% of American males and 3% of American females are iron deficient.  An iron deficiency is known to interfer with proper brain function and has been shown to be directly associated with aggressive behavior (Conduct Disorder) among adolescent males.
(Baily, Gensburg, Wagner – 1982)  [22]  Melvyn Werbach, “Nutritional Influences on Aggressive Behavior” Journal Ortho Med 1995, vol 7 No 1 [30] Sever, Ashkenazi, Tyano & Weizman, “Iron Treatment in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder”, Neuropsych, 1997; 35(4):178-80. [30]

I included this section on iron (WR4:3,29) as an example of a possible distinction between cause and treatment.  Iron deficiency may cause aggressive behavior that can be controlled with the use of pharmacutical levels (or less) of lithium, returning the person to a normal but medicated life (treat the symptom) … or the person can be given supplemental iron or educated as to the benefit of a change of diet and become normal (cured) without permanent medication.

Magnesium deficiency may promote aggressive behavior, suggesting Type A behavior pattern (JG Henrotte), chronic stress and aggressive behavior, and suicide attempts (CM Banki) are related to magnesium deficiency. [22]  Again the use of lithium can relieve the individual of the symptoms & the family and society of the expression of the symptoms.

Police and emergency medical practitioners are well aware that hypoglycemia can be related to hostile, aggressive behavior and may be seen in diabetics with too low glucose. [22]  Perhaps a base level of lithium could help patients recognize and deal with hypoglycemia.  Look for the section on diabetes.

There is considerable evidence that pharmacologic doses of lithium, which has no known essential function, can reduce abnormal aggressive behaviors including self-mutilation.  Wickham & Reed “Lithium for the control of aggressive and self-mutilating behavior”, Psychopharmacol 2(3):181-90, 1987 [22]  In the past tattooing was confined mostly to males, particularily military people at remote destinations and socially seperated (outcast) groups like the “Hells Angels”.  The actual tattooing was often associated with excessive use of alcohol.  Body piercing was confined to the earlobes, mostly of women an rarely one lobe of a males ear, a historical carry over from sailors who kept enough gold in a ring in one ear to pay for a funeral if their dead naked
body washed up on a beach anywhere in the world.

Each generation of men and women since 1950 has shown exponentially increased interest in and use of tattoing and body piercing.  In the current generation, it is common to see women with tattoos and multiple locations of body piercing including ears, tongue, eyebrow, belly button.  They more often make use of body piercing and tattoos in other less visible places.  More males, not involved in the before mentioned groups, are often seen
with tattoos and occasional body piercing.  This growth in self mutilation has seen a staggering increased use by women.

Lithium has been successful with treatment of hospitalized children with conduct disorder.
M Campbell, “Behavioral efficacy of halo-peridol and lithium carbonate”, Archive General Psychiatry, 41(7): 650-6, 184; MB Glenn, “Lithium Carbonate for aggressive benavior or affective instability in ten brain injured patients”, American Journal of Physical Med. Rehabilitation, 68(5):221-6, 1989; S Spreat, “Lithium Carbonate for aggression in mentally retarded persons”, Comp. Psychiatry 30(6):505-11, 1989 [22]

The effect of low dose lithium supplementation on overaggressive behaviors has not been reported, results of an uncontrolled study suggest that low dose lithium derived from vegetable concentrates may have a powerful effect on mental state and behavior. Thirteen depressed bipolar patients all improved in about 10 days.  After removal of the vegetable concentrates all regressed to their former depressed state within three days.  Two days after lithium was resupplied, their depressions lifted.
AA Ferro, “Natural low dose lithium supplementation in manic-depressive disease”, Nutrition Perspectives, January 1988; 10-11. [22]

Assuming a person consumes about one liter of water daily, the level of lithium provided by the vegetable concentrates (0.15 gr) approximates that consumed by the residents of the Texas counties with higher lithium levels in municipal water (0.07-0.17 gr/L). [22]

There is growing evidence that lithium may be an essential mineral in the human diet. [23]


Rumor  Since rats don’t crave lithium our human bodies don’t need it. Lithium salts appear to be like table salt. In a study with rats given lithia water which was later withheld, no such craving for Lithium was observed.

This test is not conclusive as we know know there are a number of things that are good for humans (vitamin pills, antibiotics, etc that we do not crave in fact many refuse to take items like cod liver oil no matter what their vitamin deficiency)

Mineral Cravings
When mammals suffer from a mineral deficiency during their growth periods or just general nutritional needs; the body makes foods, liquids or other items containing the needed items taste delicious.  First the body must have been exposed to the food item for a long enough period of time for it to recognize a relationship between the vitamin or mineral and the visual image or smell of the food item. Once the body learns of a local host food of some needed vitamin or mineral, it will create a craving for that particular food or drink even if the chosen item happens not to have the desired element in that particular food item.  For example, anemic bodies that have learned that iron is ice created from this local mineral water may create an unsatisfied craving
for ice even though the particular batch of ice does not contain any iron.  This is why two people with the same mineral deficiency may crave different foods or no food at all.  Some children will crave dirt or paint, mothers-to-be may crave ice cream (calcium) or pickles.  Otherwise normal adults may be unable to stop eating ice cubes, an iron craving that isn’t satisfied by the insufficient quantity of iron in the ice.

Since cravings create an intense desire to eat or drink items high in minerals, mineral spring water would attract mammals to drink it over other beverages.  This can be born out by looking at the map of almost any country. Cities were created generally at only two types of locations. One is the intersection of a river (or stream) and a body of water (called a harbor) or another river.  The other is the location of a natural spring or salt lick. This
was usually the intersection point of a number of meandering animal trails.  Since humans followed animal trails these  eventually became the basis for road systems that are so windy, indirect and up and down that no human engineer could possibly have designed them.  These animal trails were often wide and deep, the ones being left by buffalo herds were as wide as modern super highways.  One of these led to a mineral spring in upstate New
York and the city that sprung up there was so named Buffalo.  Another “trail” led Daniel Boone into Kentucky.  He had no need for a machete to cut his way through a jungle, only the bravery to follow a foot deep rut perhaps fifty feet wide without a single road sign, toll booth, or Howard Johnson’s.  Other trails led to White Rock Spring.

Lime use by Magellan’s sailors for scurvy.

All grazing animals (herbivores) need salt.  Animal predators (carnivores), including man, do not need secondary sources of salt if their primary source of food is meat containing salt.  Humans consuming mostly agricultural (vegetarian) food must have a source of salt. One of the earliest ways humans searched for salt was to follow animal trails.  Eventually, all animal trails lead to a salt lick, brine spring or mineral water spring or some other source of salt. For all recorded time and archeological research has shown man’s first economic activity in most areas of the world is the production of salt, most often by evaporation of salt water on the coast and at the larger sources of mineral or brine spring
water inland.

Strangely, though salt (“He’s not worth his salt”) was the historical basis for most economies (salary, soldier, salad, salsa, “town names ending in ‘wich’ or beginning with sal, hal, or al”), is an item wars have been faught over, is necessary for life; yet the body does not crave it.  A person who “sweats” out too many minerals by over exercising on a hot day will get sick, go into a coma and die without first having an overwhelming craving for salt.  On the other hand, people given unlimited access to salt having no bodily need for additional salt, will add up to and over four times the maximum daily healthful intake just because they like the taste.  So craving many not indicate a bodily need and a bodily need may not lead to a craving.

More important did customers crave this water?  On the other hand many people crave medications like narcotics that are in fact bad for them, so craving is an indicator but not an end all test. Yet the rats determined that in the US there would be no more testing for uses of Lithium other then mental disease and no studies would be made to see if there should be a Recommended Minimum Daily Allowance (RMDA) established.


25% general population, almost 100% in the prison population.

Food Nuitrition
According to Dr Joseph D. Campbell (www.quench.ca) 25% of people (Americans?) are Lithium deficient.  He claims the minimum adult dosage should be 1 teaspoon (5 cc’s) of 30 ppm (mg/L) Lithium water.  1 U S gallon = 128 Ounces = 256 Tablespoons = 768 Teaspoons.  Lithium water (300 ppm) currently is selling for $43- 55 per gallon ($11-20 for 16 ounces or $18-30 for 32 ounces).  It is claimed that 4 tablespoons have the equivalent of 300 mg of
LiCO3.  They claim 30 ppm is 0.15 mg per teaspoon and 0.4 5 mg per tablespoon.  While the manufacturer of this Lithia water is unidentified, clearly the health food web sites that sell it have a math/chemistry problem.  They are probably trying to work in the insolubility of Lithium compounds to claim their low (non-medical) dose is as effective as a large insoluble FDA approved pill.


Cayce Natural Products, www.caycecures.com, sells 4 ounce bottles of lithia water, “Makes One Gallon of Lithia Water” for $6.95 plus freight. [32]


Story of the 1890′s

You may have heard of the man who called to see the doctor about a bad cold, and got an elaborate prescription.  Noticing the doctor sipping something from a glass he asked what it was.  “Oh, that’s hot lemon juice and sugar,” said the doctor, absentmindedly.  “I find there’s nothing like it for a cold.”

Buffalo Lithia Spring

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